Historical Sketch of Portland

From The Portland Directory, for the Year 1863: Embracing a General Directory of Citizens, a Business Directory, and Other Statistical Information Relative to the Progress and Present Condition of the City (Portland: S. J. McCormick, Compiler and Publisher, 1863), 6–13.

S. J. McCormick compiled and published the first Portland, Oregon directories. His first directory was created in 1863, and he authored a history of Portland up to that year.

Transcription by Connie Lenzen

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Historical Sketch of Portland

No task can be more pleasing to the historian, than that of tracing the gradual steps which mark the progressive strides of a country, changing its character from an almost unknown wilderness to a cultivated region, teeming with the fruits of the earth, and smiling with happy homesteads. How gratifying it is to take up each link in the chain of events which carries us from the distant past, when Oregon was first settled by the pioneers of American enterprise, down to the present day, when her vast resources are being almost hourly developed, by the same untiring industry which characterizes the actions of every-day life.

The history of Portland is the history of Oregon. A few short years ago, and that vast scope of country embraced within the boundaries of this State was a waste of forest and prairie, known only, to the general reader, as the "Far West," and laid down upon the maps of the day as an "Unexplored Region." But the forests are disappearing before the axe of the settler, and the prairies are yielding rich golden harvests to reward the toiling husbandman. And not alone has prairie and forest been made subservient to the requirements of American enterprise, but the very canyons, creeks, and gulches, have been made to yield their golden treasures—every artery thus contributing its quota of life-giving fluid towards the successful development of the entire State.

But a few short years have elapsed since the spot where we now behold the on and vigorous city of Portland, and hear the busy hum of Commerce, was a dense forest, whose solemn stillness had never been disturbed by the footfall of civilized man. But the gigantic monarchs of the forest have disappeared, and in their place civilization has caused to arise churches, educational institutions, work-shops, and establishments devoted to the multifarious uses of Commerce. To note the events which have caused and characterized this change has been our purpose, and we proceed at once to the pleasing duty.

During the month of November, 1843, Hon. A. L. Lovejoy, (at present residing at Oregon City) and a gentleman named Overton, stepped ashore at this point from an Indian canoe, whilst enroute from Vancouver to Oregon City, and having examined the topography of the surrounding country, concluded at once that it was a most eligible position for a town site. Not being prepared, however, to commence clearing away the brush and timber with which their contemplated "claim" was covered, they determined to procure the necessary outfit, tools, and provisions, and return at some subsequent period for permanent settlement. True to their purpose, these hardy pioneers returned during the ensuing winter, and commenced at once to clear off the land, and make preparations for the erection of a log cabin, which they determined to build, on a site they had chosen close to the ravine where at present stands the Portland Saw Mill, in the southern portion of the city. But before they had perfected their arrangements for the completion of their dwelling, Mr. Overton disposed of his interest in the claim to Mr. F. W. Pettygrove, who, in conjunction with Mr. Lovejoy, had the claim surveyed, and the boundaries established during the summer of 1844. During the winter of the same year, Messrs. Lovejoy and Pettygrove hired

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man to commence clearing off the timber, and to procure logs suitable for the construction of a dwelling house; but a change was made in the location, the proprietors deeming it more prudent to commence operations nearer the centre of their claim, in preference to improving at the southern extremity. Immediate preparations were made to clear off the ground adjacent to where the Columbian Hotel at present stands, and accordingly a log house was erected on the spot, and occupied by their employee during that winter. The building completed and a portion of the land cleared, the proprietors determined upon having a more accurate survey of their claim, and in the summer of 1845, Thomas A. Brown was employed to do so, which he did, at the same time laying off a portion of it into streets, blocks and lots – it being agreed between the partners that the lots were to be fifty feet wide by one hundred feet deep the streets sixty feet wide, with the exception of water street, (or as it present known, Front street,) which was to be as near sixty feet wide as the variations of the banks of the river would admit. A plat was accordingly made; and the next thought that engaged the minds of the proprietors was that of choosing a suitable name for the newly born city of the west. Mr. Lovejoy suggested that the place be called Boston, in honor of the capital of his native State, in hopes that at some future time it might rival in commerce and importance the modern Athens. Mr. Pettygrove contended that Portland was more appropriate, inasmuch as this was the head of steamboat navigation and the port where would land all the freight intended for the valley of the Willamette, and all the southern portion of the Territory. In order to decided this "vexed question," it was proposed by Mr. Pettygrove to toss a copper cent, which he had brought with him as a souvenir of this Eastern home; this being agreed to by Mr. Lovejoy, the cent was produced, and, Mr. Pettygrove proving the winner, Portland was adopted as the cognomen of the embryo city.

During the winter of 1845–6, Mr. Lovejoy, having business at Oregon City which engaged his attention, sold out is interest in the Portland town site claim to Benjamin Stark, and in the following spring several blocks and lots were sold to parties who commenced improvements by the erection of log houses. It was during this period that the first store was erected in Portland at the south-west corner of what is now known as Washington and Front Streets. This store was erected by Mr. Pettygrove, who also during the same year completed a dwelling house which is at present attached to the Columbian Hotel. In October, 1848, Mr. Pettygrove sold his interest in the Portland claim to Daniel H. Lownsdale, including in the sale a wharf which stood at the foot of Washington Street, and which was built for Mr. Pettygrove in the fall of 1846, by John Waymire, and also a slaughter-house which Messrs. Stark and Pettygrove had erected on the bank of the Willamette River.

During the three following years the attention of the residents of Oregon was generally directed to the gold fields of California, and very many enterprising citizens, lured by the glowing accounts that were conveyed hither from time to time by some lucky returned miner or trader, procured their outfits and started off for the rich placers of California, little dreaming they were leaving, far to the north of their destination, mines equally as rich and extensive as those to which they were wending their way. In consequence of this excitement, and the scarcity of labor, very little permanent improvements of any kind were attempted to be made throughout Oregon, and Portland shared in the general lethargy that hung like a mist over every enterprise that required labor for its completion. However, during 1850 the place had become of some little importance in the public mind, although it was occasionally styled "a place twelve miles below Oregon City" – this latter town assuming to itself all the importance of the Capitol and Commercial Metropolis of Oregon Territory.

During the earlier part of 1850 the necessity for having a newspaper published at this point, became apparent to the settlers and property owners of Portland, as both Milwaukie

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and Oregon City were represented by the press—the former having the Western Starto advocate its advantages over every other embryo "city" in the territory, and the latter place being represented by the Oregon Spectator, a weekly newspaper doing battle for the interest of Oregon in general, but Oregon City in particular. Under these circumstances the people of Portland thought justice to themselves and their property, demanded that they should procure a press through which their interest would be promoted. Accordingly in October of that year, the materials for a printing office were shipped on board the bark Keoka, at San Francisco, but the vessel having experienced head winds and delays on the passage, did not arrive here until the following month, and the issue of the paper was delayed until December 4th, when the Weekly Oregonian made its appearance, Thomas J. Dryer being editor and proprietor. In the first number of the Oregonian, Portland is described as a town that "has sprung into existence within an incredible short space of time. The buildings, mostly new, of good style and taste, which with their white coats of paint, contrasted with the brown and dingy appearance of towns generally on the Pacific Coast, gives it a most home-like aspect." Alluding to the citizens, the editor says: "The property holders, by their industry and liberality, are manifesting an earnest of the future destiny of the place. The inhabitants, for intelligence and moral worth, are not surpassed by any town in the eastern States." When we consider the general character bestowed upon the great majority of towns on the Pacific Coast at that early day, such a commentary upon Portland speaks volumes in this praise.

As evidence of the enterprise which characterized the business men of Portland even in its earliest infancy, we note the fact that in 1850, Messrs. Couch & Co. dispatched the brig Emma Preston, Capt. Van Sice, to Canton, and the steamer Gold Hunter having made a visit to this port, a joint-stock company was forthwith projected and formed for the purpose of purchasing a large interest in the vessel, so as to secure her as a regular steamer between Portland and San Francisco. Although this latter arrangement did not continue in successful operation, nor prove beneficial to the stockholders, yet the enterprise evinced by those concerned in it, deserved better success.

As another evidence of the growing importance of the place, we may mention that St. John's day, 1850, was duly celebrated by the Masonic Fraternity then resident in or near this city. A procession was formed at the Hall—then located in a wooden building surrounded by stumps and fallen timber—and under the direction of the Marshal of the Day, Mr. Elliott and preceded by the Military band from Vancouver, marched to the Methodist Church, where an address was delivered by Rev. Horace Lyman, and an oration delivered by T. J. Dryer, followed by the installation of officers, Lieutenant F. S. Russell, U.S.A., acting as W.G.M. In the evening a dinner was partaken of at the California House, on first Street, which has since been torn down to make room for more substantial improvements.

During 1851, Portland took a lengthy stride towards assuming the position of a city. Many stores, dwellings, workshops, and three churches were erected; the Sons of Temperance also organized during this year, and everything connected with the city or its inhabitants, seemed to betoken progress. The Legislative Assembly, of 18501, having granted a charter for the government of the city, the first election for municipal officers was held on the 7th of April, 1851. But little interest was manifested in the result, as there were neither local nor political issues at stake. Hugh D. O'Bryant was elected Mayor by four majority, over J. S. Smith; W. S. Caldwell was elected Recorder, and Robert Thompson, Shubrick Norris, Geo. A. Barnes, Thos. G. Robinson, and L. B. Hastings, City Councilmen. In June following, the Territorial election for Delegate to Congress took place, and as an index by which to judge of the population of Portland at that period, it may not be uninteresting to mention the fact that upon that occasion the vote stood, Lane 162, Wilson

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60: showing a total of two hundred and twenty-two voters. During this month, the brig Amazon arrived at Portland from Whampon, China, being the first arrival direct from the Celestial empire.

For several years, the people of Portland, aided by the farmers of Washington county, had been canvassing the possibility of constructing a good substantial road from this city leading to the Tualatin Plains; but no definite action was taken towards its completion until the fall of 1851, when it was determined to construct a plank road leading through the canyon at the south-western portion of the city. Accordingly, in October, the first plank of this pioneer public work was laid, by Stephen Coffin, and the event was duly celebrated by the citizens en masse, who looked upon the contemplated improvement as one of the most important enterprises in which the people of this portion of the Territory could become interested.

As the prospects of Milwaukie did not seem to brighten, towards the close of 1851, it was deemed prudent to move the printing establishment of the Western Star to Portland, where it subsequently made its re-appearance as the Oregon Weekly Times.

The year 1852 found Portland still enjoying increased prosperity– new buildings were constantly being erected, and commerce was steadily extending its area of operations by the aid of the numerous steamers that were plying on the Columbia and Willamette rivers, the names of which will doubtless sound familiar to many of the earlier settlers. In June, 1852, the steamer Willamette carried the U.S. mails between this city and Astoria. This vessel was owned by the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and was sent here for the purpose of connecting with their larger steamers at Astoria, that being the port at which their route ceased. The steamers Lot Whitcomb,Multnomah, Jas. P. Flint, Washington, and Eagle, also plied to different points along the Columbia and Willamette. The Columbia,Black Hawk, and Major Redding, having "seen service," were laid up, and their machinery converted to other purposes.

At the municipal election held during April in this year, A. C. Bonnell was elected Mayor; S. S. Slater, Recorder; and W. P. Abrams, A. P. Dennison, Thomas Pritchard, Abel G. Tripp, and Hiram Smith, Councilmen. Mr. Smith subsequently resigned, and Josiah Failing was elected by the Board to fill the vacancy. Messrs. Bonnell, and Slater having resigned their respective positions, an election was held in the November following, at which Simon B. Mayre was elected Mayor, and C. B. Pillow, Recorder. The Board of Alderman comprised S. Norris, Thomas Pritchard, J. Failing, P. A. Marquam, and A. P. Dennison.

The Territorial Legislature of 1852–3 having amended the charter for this city, it was voted upon and adopted by the citizens of Portland on the 19th of March, 1853; and during the ensuing month an election was held for city officers, at which Josiah Failing was elected Mayor; A. C. Bonnell, Recorder; S. S. Slater, Assessor; W. H. Barnhart, Treasurer, and Wm. Grooms, City Marshal. A Board of Councilmen were also elected, comprised of the following citizens: Robert Thompson, W. S. Ladd Jno. H. Couch, W. P. Abrams. R. N. McLaren, R. M. Field, Chas. B. Pillow, H. W. Davis, and Jonas Williams. The highest vote cast upon that occasion was three hundred and thirty. During September, 1853, Mr. Bonnell resigned the office of Recorder, and A. Weisenthal was elected to fill the vacancy.

It was during this year that the first brick stores were erected—W. S. Ladd being the pioneer in this enterprise, Lucien Snow and D. C. Coleman following his example.

At the annual election in 1854, W. S. Ladd was elected Mayor; A. P. Dennison, Recorder; Thos. Pritchard, Treasurer; Chas. P. Bacon, Assessor, and W. L. Higgins, marshal. The following citizens were elected as Councilmen: A. M. Starr, Jas. Field, Jr., Shubrick Norris, Thomas Carter, Wm. McMillen, A. D. Fitch, O. J. Backus, A. R. Ship-

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ley, and Jas. Turnbull. The highest number of votes cast upon this occasion being four hundred and fifty-eight.

During December of this year, the steam saw mills, belonging to the Portland Milling Company, situated in the southern part of the city, were destroyed by fire, and this disaster materially delayed the progress of the city for several months, in consequence of the scarcity of lumber and other building material at this point.

In 1855, Geo. W. Vaughn was elected Mayor; L. Limerick, Recorder; Thos. J. Holmes, Marshal; W. S. Ogden, Assessor; Thos. Frazer, Treasurer; and Geo. Kittredge, John Green, H. S. Jacobs, Matthew Patton, Lewis Love, John C. Carson, Thos. Harness, E. B. Calhoun and Geo. C. Robbins, Councilmen. Mr. Limerick having resigned the office of recorder in June following, Anthony L. Davis was elected to fill the vacancy.

A census of Portland taken during 1855 exhibits to us the fact that the city then contained four churches, an academy, a public school, one steam flour mill, four steam saw mills, four printing offices, two express offices, four doctors' and six lawyers' offices, two dentists, five cabinet shops, three bakeries, four stove and tin stores, two tailoring establishments, two jewelers, four blacksmithing shops, one foundry, three wagon makers, six painters, two boat builders, six livery stables, twelve hotels and boarding houses, three butchers, six saloons, two bowling alleys, one book store, one drug store, one daguerrean gallery, one shoe store, one candy manufactory, and a few cigar stores. Besides the foregoing, there were twenty-five establishments dealing in dry goods, groceries, &c., together with ten establishments engaged exclusively in dry goods, and seven in groceries only. The total valuation of real and personal property in the city at that time, was assessed at $1,195,034.

The Indian troubles of 1855–6 greatly retarded business of every kind in Portland, and naturally prevented improvements being made upon any scale of magnitude; but with a cessation of hostilities, the city again progressed upon its onward course.

At the annual charter election held in April, 1856; James O'Neill was elected Mayor; A. L. Davis, Recorder; Thos. A. Savier, Treasurer; Z. N. Stansbury, Assessor; Thomas J. Holmes, Marshal. The following citizens composed the Board of Common Council: Rob't Porter, A. D. Shelby, A. B. Elfeldt, L. M. Starr, W. S. Ladd, William Beck, H. W. Davis, S. M. Smith, and Jas. Burk.

In 1857, Messrs. O'Neill and Davis were re-elected to their respective offices; T. N. Lakin was chosen Treasurer; John M. Breck, Assessor, and S. R. Holcomb, Marshal. The following Councilmen were also elected: John H. Couch, T. J. Holmes, A. B. Hallock, Chas. Hutchins, P. Hardenburg, N. S. Coon, B. F. Goodwin, S. G. Reed, and Jas. M. Blossom. The Assessor's returns for this year exhibit the total valuation of property at $1,103,829, and the population as follows: males, 765; females, 515. Total population, 1,280.

At the annual charter election in 1858, A. M. Starr was chosen Mayor; Alonzo Leland, Recorder; H. W. Corbett, Treasurer; J. M. Breck, Assessor; S. R. Holcomb, Marshal; and Z. N. Stansbury, Port Warden. The following citizens comprised the Board of Councilmen: Geo. C. Robbins, A. P. Ankeny, C. P. Bacon, T. N. Lakin, R. Porter, T. J. Holmes, J. C. Carson, Wm. M. King, and C. S. Kingsley. The highest vote cast at this election was four hundred and sixty.

In 1859, the following municipal officers were chosen: Mayor, S. J. McCormick; Recorder, Noah Huber; Treasurer, J. McCraken; Assessor, Wm. Kapus; Marshal, James H. Lappeus; Port Warden, Daniel Wright; Councilmen, A. B. Hallock, J. M. Vansyckle, J. Davidson, A. D. Shelby, M. M. Lucas, J. C. Hawthorne, E. D. Shattuck, A. C. R. Shaw and John Blanchard.

On the 18th of April, 1859, the first number of a daily newspaper was issued in this city. It bore the title of Portland Daily News, and was published by S. A. English & Co. It

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has ceased to exist, and the material upon which it was printed removed to Eugene City. The advent of the Newswas quickly followed by the appearance of the Oregon Advertiser, under the editorial and proprietary control of Alonzo Leland. This paper continued to be published until October, 162. The material is at present used in the publication of the Evening Commercial. Whilst treating of literary enterprises we may as well state that the first number of the Daily Times was issued on the 19th day of December, 1860, and was followed by the appearance of the Daily Oregonian, on the 4th day of February, 1861.

At the regular charter election in 1860, Geo. C. Robbins was chosen Mayor; O. Risley, Recorder; S. Wasserman, Treasurer; James W. Going, Assessor; and James H. Lappeus, Marshal. The following Councilmen were also elected: J. C. Ainsworth, J. Davidson, A. B. Hallock, A. D. Shelby, M. M. Lucas, W. L. Higgins, A. C. R. Shaw, E. D. Shattuck and Jacob Stitzel. The vote for both candidates for Mayor upon this occasion exhibits the number of person entitled to vote at the municipal elections, at three hundred and two.

In January, 1860, the School Clerk for this District, Mr. J. F. McCoy, published a census of the City, showing the number of inhabitants in the City, and scholars in the District. As it will doubtless prove interesting to trace the gradual increase of population from year to year, we insert the statistics in full.

Census for 1860

Males over the age of 21 1,163
Females " " " 670 1,833
Males between 4 and 21 368
Females " " " 323 691
Males under 4 147
Females " " 203 350

Colored

Males 10
Females 6 16

Chinese

Males 23
Females 4 27

Whole number of scholars in District, 716

J. F. McCoy, School Clerk

At the annual city election held on the first Monday in April, 1861, John M. Breck was elected Mayor; O. Risley, Recorder; H. Wasserman, Treasurer; William Grooms, Marshal; and James W. Going, Assessor. The following Board of Councilmen were also elected: John McCraken, A. B. Hallock, F. Harbaugh, Wm. L. Higgins, W. C. Hull, William M. King, E. R. Scott, William Masters and John S. White. Mr. Scott subsequently resigned, and S. E. Barr was elected to fill the vacancy.

During December of this year, Portland, as well as almost every other portion of the Willamette valley, suffered materially through the freshet, which carried off several wharves, and otherwise damaged property along the bank of the river.

At the charter election in 1862, W. H. Farrar was elected Mayor, J. F. McCoy, Recorder, William Grooms, Marshal, H. B. Morse, Treasurer, and R. J. Ladd, Assessor. The Board of Councilmen comprised the following citizens: Thomas A. Davis, Thomas J. Holmes and A. B. Hallock from the First Ward; O. Risley, J. M. Breck and A. P. Denison from the Second ward; and S. Coffin, C. S. Silvers and A. G. Walling from the Third ward. Some resignations and changes, however, have been since made, which will be found under their proper head in another portion of the work.

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During June of this year; much damage was done to property in this place, in consequence of the unprecedented rise of the Willamette River, which overflowed the banks below the gas works, and completely inundated the lower portion of the city.

Having thus traced what may be termed the official history of the city from 1851 to the past year, we proceed to sketch Portland and its surroundings as they are at present, leaving all speculation as to what they may become in the future, to the reader.

Portland—in latitude 45o 30' north, longitude 12o 27' 30" west—is a port of entry, the county seat of Multnomah County, and the Commercial Metropolis of Oregon. It is pleasantly located on the west bank of Willamette river, about thirteen miles above its junction with the Columbia, and about one hundred and ten miles–by the river course–from the Pacific Ocean. The city is located on a plateau which gradually increases in eight as it recedes from the river, until it forms a range of hills at the western extremity of the city, from which may be seen the snow-capped summits of Mounts Hood, St. Helens, and Jefferson, the Cascade range of mountains, and the meanderings of the Columbia and Willamette rivers.

Commercially speaking, Portland is the key to the entire Willamette valley, being the entrepot at which arrives all the merchandise, machinery, and wares of every description consumed or required by the inhabitants of the interior of Oregon, and also by the people of that portion of this State and Washington Territory resident east of the Cascades. The commercial interests of this city extend to every portion of the mining or agricultural regions of Oregon and Washington from the Pacific Ocean to the Rock mountains, and in almost every enterprise calculated to develop the resources of either this State or Washington Territory, where skill and capital are required to carry out the desired object, the citizens of Portland are foremost in coming forward to aid in such enterprises. In proof of this assertion, we may point with pride to the numerous associations and in corporate companies who have their head-quarters in this city, and whose capital is engaged in erecting bridges, building roads, steamboats and telegraph lines, and in promoting the general interests of the entire Pacific Coast by their laudable efforts.

But a few years since not a solitary steamboat could be seen gliding along the waters of the upper Columbia, but the development of the mineral wealth of the vast region extending from the Cascade to the Bitter Root mountains demanded that steamboats should convey merchandise and supplies of every kind to the thousands of miners, mechanics and traders who flocked to the modern El Dorado. The enterprising spirit of business men was at once aroused, and we now find not only the waters of the upper Columbia, but also of its tributaries, sparkling beneath the evolving wheels of steamboats. And all this has been accomplished within a very few years by the aid of capital which has accumulated through the energies of commercial men.

There are at present nearly twenty river steamers plying from Portland to the various towns along the Willamette and Columbia rivers, together with several ocean steamers and sailing vessels that ply between this city and San Francisco; from this fact readers at a distance may be able to form some idea of the extent of commerce for which Portland forms the ingress and egress, and we can only regret that no statistical information can be procured showing the amount of our annual exports and imports.

The present population of Portland, as shown by the census taken especially for this work, exhibits the number of inhabitants as follows:

Males 21 years of age and upwards

1,110

Males over 10 and under 21 years 223
Males of 10 years and under 488
Females 18 years of age and upwards 733
Females from 10 to 8 210

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Females under 10 488
Colored males 34
Colored females 13
Colored males and females under 10 years of age 5
Chinese males 36
Chinese females 17
Floating population, estimated from calculations made from registers of hotels and boarding houses 700
Total population 4,057

From this number, however, has been much increased by the numerous arrivals which have occurred since the foregoing census was taken, and we may safely estimate the population at present, as being fully five thousand.

But it is not in population alone that Portland has progressed. The capacious churches that adorn our city; the substantial school houses, wharves, mills, manufactories and work-shops, together with the brick buildings, stores and dwelling houses, that abound within the corporate limits, these give substantial evidences of the onward progress of Portland. Look, too, at the progress which has been made in the improvements of the streets, many of which were impassable but a few years ago, and for the benefit of our patrons we inset the scale of new grades established by the Common Council, at its meeting December 10th, 1862.

[Table not copied.]

The increased value of Real Estate in Portland, is another striking evidence of its prosperity. Lots and blocks that a few years ago were considered of little or no value whatever, are now being readily disposed of at large prices, and property in any part of the

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business portion of the town, is sought for at almost fabulous prices. Treating upon this topic, a late number of the Daily Oregonian contains the following:

"The increase in wealth has been still greater, and what is still more encouraging, the increase both in point of population and wealth has been of a substantial and permanent character. Our wealth and population have not come to us like many other towns on this coast—here to-day and gone to-morrow—but when a resident, merchant or trader, settles down in our city, he settles to stay.

Eighteen months ago, and any number of vacant houses could be found in the city, but to-day scarcely a shell can be obtained sufficient to shelter a small family, and the demand great and constantly increasing Rents are up at an exorbitant figure, and before a house is half completed, at least a half dozen applications are made to rent the whole building or parts of it. Many houses contain two or more families, and people are crowded and huddled into every nook and corner of the city affording the least protection or shelter from the storms. There are a large number of hotels, restaurants, and boarding-houses in the city, every one of which is crowded almost to overflowing. In fine, the town is full of people, and more coming in. As has been noticed by us on several former occasions, improvements of all kinds are constantly and rapidly going on; buildings going up in all parts of the city; streets graded and planked; wharfs and ware-houses stretching their gigantic proportions along the levees, and a general thrift and busy hum greets the ear or attracts the attention of a stranger upon every street and corner. Hurrah for Portland, say we."

In this connection it may not be improper to state that the Assessor's returns for 1861 shows the value of real and personal property in Portland, as being two millions, eighty-nine thousand, four hundred and twenty dollars.

The following abstract of the Assessor's roll for United States Excise Tax may not prove uninteresting, showing as it does at a glance, the several branches of business for which licenses are required, that are carried on in Portland, and also the amount of assessment in the aggregate.

We are indebted to Mr. H. C. Coulson for the following table:

Apothecaries 3   Livery Stables 5
Auctioneers 4   Manufactures 28
Brewers 3   Physicians 11
Bankers 2   Wholesale dealers in liquors 8
Billiard Rooms 6   Retail 55
Confectioners 2   Wholesale dealers in general Merchandise 45
Dentists 5   Retail dealers in general merchandise 91
Eating Houses 12   Tobacconists, Wholesale 2
Hotels 14   Tobacconists, Retail 8
Lawyers 22      

Amount assessment for Licenses $9,030.00
Monthly Report of Manufactures, Brewers, Steam and Ferry Boats, Slaughtered Animals, &c. $2,066.09
Total $11,079.09

The foregoing facts all tend to prove the steady progressive growth of Portland, and when we compare the vicissitudes which have marked the career of hundreds of towns on the Pacific coast, with the prosperity which has attended the career of this City, such comparisons should tend to repay us for any efforts we may have made in the past, and reinvigorate us again to prepare to enjoy the future prosperity and greatness of Portland.

Tables of Distances

[Not copied]


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